Conclusion

From the results obtaianed, it was found that the picture was characteristic to Chinese people in general. The whole personality of girls was much stable than boys. Students in Secondary Schools did the same also. Girls had higher self identity. The difference between boys and girls from the schools of higher prestige was not found. But the difference appeared in students from the schools of lower prestige. In Chinese traditions, boys had more freedom than girls. This concept was still acting in the older generations, although the Hong Kong families were becoming westernized. Therefore, it would be easier to convince the girls of what they should be. But it was not easy to inculcate boys to follow, then, they had a less stable self identity as they were exploring the world. The unacceptable things about self identity was that the self identity was decreasing in boys, it may be a result of growth, but those of girls did not change much.

In Secondary Schools girls were more satisfied with themselves. The girls had the interest in seeking for higher self satisfaction. Girls in schools of lower prestige showed the same. Teh instruction media did not affect their self satisfaction. The self satisfaction of boys decreased while that of girls increased from Grade 1 to Grade 5. In the past, girls has less cance in taking school education. By this time, girls in the lower socio-economics class were still not much fortunate than before. This was the reason for the higher self satisfaction in girls at schools, because they knew that they were far more luckier than many other girls outside schools.

Boys hoped for more good behavior, but their behavior was less stable wen compared with girls, no matter what the instruction media were. Girls perceived their behavior better than boys in schools of lower prestige. In Secondary Schools or in school of lower prestige their behavior were more stable also. The attitude of boys might be due to the freedom that initiated the questioning of the traditions. It might be unacceptable to the parents. Therefore, the boys used the affirmation of the positive attributes to keep their self concept concistent and avoid the change.

The boys in schools of higher prestige and in Chinese Middle Schools felt that they had better physical self. The sense of physical self was closely related to the sense of superiority at that time. If they felt the superiority in some abstract things, they would develop the sense of superiority in some other concrete things in order to keep their perceptions balanced.

The conservative attitude of girls made them perceive better moral-ethical self than boys under any circumstances. They had stronger will to get more good attributes than boys except those who were from the schools of higher prestige.

Girls also denied the negative attributes of personal self, while boys affirmed the positive. This indicated the students' concept of good boy and good girl that the threshold of a good girl was the girl showing no bad attribute, but the threshold of a good boy is the boy showing good characters. Under this expectation of having good characters, the personal self of boys were less stable than the girls. The response of boys in schools of higher prestige was quite different that they expected to have a change intheir family self rather than the change in personal self. The preference of changing the family self instead of the personal self needed a high confidence. The distribution score just proved that the boys were more confident in themselves tan girls in schools of higher prestige.

Boys perceived the school prestige higher than the girls and had higher sense of superiority for their instruction media in Chinese Middle Schools. The perception of the instruction media is better than that of the students from the schools of lower prestige. It may be due to the fact that entering a school of higher prestige is not easy. If the student intends to enter a school of higher prestige, he/she must have good impression on everything, including the instruction media of the school. The choice of instruction media is mainly affected by the father. If the fathers intend to make the choices on the instruction media and school lprestige, it is obvious that they had higher motivation to enable their children to achieve. This may be one of the reasons for the higher self concept in students of the schools of higher prestige.

The results indicated that the students in school of higher prestiges have higher self concept. The influence of the instruction media is more significant on boys than girls. In some areas of the self conept, the students in the schools of lower prestiges had the growth that the students in the schools of higher prestiges did not have. The growth mainly occurred in Grade 2 and Grade 3. This resembled the report of Ellis (et al, 1980) that the re-organization of the boundaries of self concept occurred near age 16. As a result, the students in schools of lower prestige would have their self concept raised to the level similar to that of the satudents from the schools of higher prestige. Whether there was a limit in the growth of self concept in Secondary (Middle) Schools was still unknown. The possible difference was in the pattern of growth that the students in schools of higher prestiges gained the higher self concept at the beginning and stabilized during the course of growth. But the students in schools of lower prestige had lower self concept and grew in a balanced pattern. The growth also occurred in students from school of higher prestiges, but it took place one or two years before that of the students in schools of lower prestiges. This indicated that the perceived school prestige could promote the growth of the self concept.

The difference between the students in Chinese Middle Schools and in Anglo-Chinese Secondary Schools was similar to that of the students from the schools of higher prestiges and the schools of lower prestiges. The self concept of the students in Chinese Middle Schools were higher at the beginning, but were exceeded by the students from the Anglo-Chinese Secondary Schools after the growth. The patterns of growth were similar also, except that the acquiescent conflict occurred in students from the Chinese Middle Schools. This acquiescent conflict and lack of growth might be due to the suppression of the social status of the Chinese language. If this impediment was removed, the self concept of the students fro the Chinese Middle Schools would grow higher.

In other countries, educators and psychologists were interested in finding out the methods to enhance the self concept. In Hong Kong we had two simple ways to reach the result. They were to raise the prestige of the schools and to remove the impediment from the Chinese Middle School students. Of course, not all schools could have higher prestige, because the school prestige was a complex of paretns' expectation, the trust of the parents, the administration of the schools, the enthusiasm of teachers, the teachers' expectation, students' achievement motivation and the students' performance. But at least, the school which admitted students of higher achievement motivation and higher parents' expectation should have a higher chance to get a higher prestige. This included the improvement in school administration and teachers' enthusiasm. As stated in above, the problem of the school prestige was the cause of the difficulty in allocation of students. Everybody would like to have their children allocated to the schools of higher prestiges. They had higher expectation on their children, but they trusted a few schools only. Therefore, the parents would queue for the application forms for the schools of higher prestiges. If they felt that more schools wre trustworthy, they could have more choices. The children with low achievement motivation and low parents' expectation might enter the schools of lower prestiges, then, there would be a smaller discrepancy between teachers' expectation and students' performance. The environment might be more suitable for them to develop a higher self concept.

Another way to raise the self concept was to use Chinese as the instruction medium. Although the Education Department did not insist to lecture in English in Anglo-Chinese Secondary Schools, it gave the right to the schools to make decisions. This was not the proper attitude. The Education department should take the responsibility to supervise and to give suggestion to the schools. What ever language it thought to be the right one, the Department should insisted on its position. If it found that its position was wrong, the Department should improve it. Now that there was a conflict between the educators and the education Department, the Education Department should took the responsibility to clearify the fact. If it agreed with the view of the educators, it was time to amend the education system. The first thing to be done was to remove the constriction in the use of instruction media from the Code of Aids. Another step was to combine the English Language Syllabus A and English Language Syllabus B in the Certificate of Education Examination, because nobody could predict the achievement of students after Grade 5 before they entered Grade 1.


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(10.07.2007)